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入菩萨行讲义 第四十讲 回向功德品

导读:第四十讲 回向功德品 Lecture 40 Chapter Ten Dedication 日期:二零零七年四月十四日 上堂我们已提到寂天菩萨在传讲《入菩萨行》(Bodhicharyāvatāra)时,以自己闻思修菩萨行的善根功德,回向给六道众生;愿他们在轮回期间,得到世间暂时的安乐!在未来更长的日子里,得到「菩萨相续乐!」接着,寂天菩萨由六道中最悲惨的地狱开始,祝愿地狱众生消除寒热极端痛苦,又...
第四十讲 回向功德品 Lecture 40 Chapter Ten Dedication 日期:二零零七年四月十四日 上堂我们已提到寂天菩萨在传讲《入菩萨行》(Bodhicharyāvatāra)时,以自己闻思修菩萨行的善根功德,回向给六道众生;愿他们在轮回期间,得到世间暂时的安乐!在未来更长的日子里,得到「菩萨相续乐!」接着,寂天菩萨由六道中最悲惨的地狱开始,祝愿地狱众生消除寒热极端痛苦,又祝愿饿鬼道众生免除饥渴的痛苦,还再祝愿畜生动物远离残杀互啖、弱肉强食的恐惧。今堂寂天菩萨主要是将功德回向给人类。由颂十八至颂四十一,主要祝愿的对象是一般人;而由颂四十二至颂五十是回向给修行人(the ordained),其中也包括声闻、独觉和菩萨这些圣者。跟下三道众生一样,寂天菩萨首先祝愿凡夫先离开痛苦。人类最大的痛苦莫过于盲聋残障,或者处于赤贫、孤独和老弱,又或者肉体和精神都饱受痛苦折磨。「愿盲见形色,聋者常闻声!」「愿贫者得财!苦者得安乐!」「愿诸病有情,速脱疾病苦!」「愿畏无所惧,缚者得解脱!」「愿诸天守护,无路险难处,老弱无怙者,愚痴颠狂徒!」各人远离种种苦,还得种种乐。接着,寂天菩萨更祝愿人类无论在物质享受、精神生活和灵性修持上,都能圆满所求。首先,寂天菩萨乐于见到一个经济富庶、民风纯朴、民智发达、平等和谐的社会。「愿受用无尽,犹如虚空藏!」「食用悉富饶!」「愿天降时雨,五谷悉丰收!」「愿无诤无害!」「具心慈爱慧!」「时时忆宿命!」「自在享天年!」「常乐福善行!」「愿世娇弱女,悉成男子汉!寒门晋显贵,慢者转谦逊!」「仁王如法行,世事皆兴隆。」人民衣食丰足,民风朴实,民智开明,在世间层面来说是可以了,对于以出离、解脱轮回为目标的佛教,或许这些只是入法的基础。所以寂天菩萨祈请诸佛菩萨加持,令凡夫趣入正法,出离生死,切勿耽于世间生活。「愿不舍觉心,委身菩提行;诸佛恒提携,断尽诸魔业!」当凡夫怀着志切解脱的决心,想要出离苦海后,为了提

入菩萨行讲义 第四十讲 回向功德品

供一个良好的学佛环境,悲天悯人的寂天菩萨就发愿娑婆世间变成好像极乐世界一样的净土,地球不再有石头荆棘,大地平如手掌,地表光滑得像吠琉璃,四周长满如意树,飞鸟、虚空演唱出相续不断的法音。与此同时,人寿像极乐世界一样,寿命无量。最后,寂天菩萨祝愿地球佛光普照,人人都有机会以佛为师,人人恒随佛学!「愿诸菩萨众,安住闻法眷,各以妙功德,庄严佛道场。」「愿彼常值佛,以及诸佛子,并以无边云,献供众生师!」(十八)愿盲见形色,聋者常闻声;如彼摩耶女,孕妇产无碍。以我的善行功德,愿所有盲人都能见到事物,聋者听到声音;愿孕妇都像摩耶佛母(Māyādevī)一样,生孩子时毫无障碍痛苦。May the blind see sights, and may the deaf hear. May the pregnant give birth without any pain, as did Śākyamuni’s mother Māyādevī.(十九)愿裸获衣裳,饥者得足食,渴者得净水,妙味诸甘饮。愿裸露缺衣者能得到衣服,饥饿者能及时获得足够的食品;愿口渴的人可以解渴,随欲得到净水和各种美味饮料。May the naked find clothing, the hungry find food, and the thirsty water, and delicious drink.(二十)愿贫者得财!苦者得安乐!愿彼绝望者,振奋意永固!愿贫穷者找得到财富和受用;那些苦恼焦虑的弱者找到喜悦;那些失意绝望者能重新振作,意志坚定,内心平稳。May the poor attain wealth, those stricken with grief find joy. And may the discouraged become uplifted and perfectly steadfast.(二十一)愿诸病有情,速脱疾病苦!亦愿众生疾,毕竟永不生!愿一切病患者的疾病皆得到

入菩萨行讲义 第四十讲 回向功德品

治愈,愿每一种疾病都被断除,永不复发。May as many limited beings as are sick be swiftly set free from sickness; and may the sicknesses of wandering beings, without exception, never recur.(二十二)愿畏无所惧,缚者得解脱!弱者力强壮,心思互饶益!愿那些胆怯的人,皆远离恐惧;愿所有无自由的囚犯,皆重获自由。愿瘦弱的人强壮有力,而且彼此心存善意,友爱互助!May those who are frightened be fearless, those in shackles be released, those lacking strength become strong, and their hearts become friendly toward each other.(二十三)愿十方商贾,处处皆安乐!所求一切利,无劳悉成办!愿那些奔走十方的商旅,处处都能吉祥平安,所营求的一切利益,都能毫不费力,顺利成办!May every direction be felicitous for all travelers. May the purpose for which they set out be accomplished effortlessly.(二十四)愿诸航行者,成办意所愿,安抵河海岸,亲友共欢聚!愿在海中航行的旅客,都能圆满完成他们心中的愿望,平安上岸;和亲友欢乐地会聚! May those who set out on boats succeed in fulfilling their desire. May they safely reach the shore and rejoice with their relatives.(二十五)愿迷荒郊者,幸遇诸行旅,无盗虎等惧,无倦顺利行!愿那些迷失漂泊

入菩萨行讲义 第四十讲 回向功德品

在荒郊野地的人,有幸遇得商客作向导,中途没遇上盗匪虎狼等袭击意外恐惧,旅途上一切顺利。May those who find themselves on wrong paths in dreary forests come upon the company of fellow travelers; and without fear of thieves, bandits, tigers, and like, journey at ease, without fatigue.(二十六)愿诸天守护,无路险难处,老弱无怙者,愚痴颠狂徒! 愿仁慈的天神,在无路险恶之处,保护那些老弱妇孺;还有那些愚痴、颠狂的人。May deities protect the dull, the insane, the deranged, the helpless, the young and the elderly, and those in danger from sickness, the wilderness, and so on.(二十七)愿脱无暇难,具心慈爱慧,食用悉富饶,时时忆宿命!以我的善行功德,愿众生得以脱离无暇修行佛法的八难1 ,个个具足信心、智慧和慈爱,饮食及日用物资都丰饶富足,经常能回忆过去生的一切往事!知人生难得,精进修行。May they be free from all lack of leisure; may they be endowed with belief in the facts, discriminating awareness, and affectionate care. May they have a splendid sustenance, (appearance) and demeanor, and always remember their previous lives.(二十八)愿受用无尽,犹如虚空藏!愿无诤无害,自在享天年!愿一切众生受用圆满无竭,好像虚空一样,得到无边无际的财富宝藏。愿众生彼此无诤,更不会相互残害,个个自由自在安享天年!May every one have inexhaustible wealth, just like sky-treasure. Free of conflict and violence, may they live freely.(二十九)愿卑寒微士,容光悉焕发!苦行憔悴者,健明形庄严!愿穷困卑微贫寒人家,个个容光焕发,神采飞扬!愿那些修苦行而使自己身形憔悴枯槁的人,个个身体健朗,形色庄严!May those limited beings who have little splendor come to have magnificent splendor. And may those in difficult straits, with disfigured bodies, come to have splendid beautiful bodies. (三十)愿世娇弱女,悉成男子汉!寒门晋显贵,慢者转谦逊!愿宇宙间所有愿转男身的女人,皆得转生为男人!愿低下阶层者都得显达,傲慢狂徒都变成谦谦君子! May the women in the world become men. And may the lowly attain high position. And the arrogant become humble.(三十一)愿诸有情众,因吾诸福德,悉断一切恶,常乐福善行!愿一切有情借着我的善行福德,个个都无有例外地断除恶业,行持福德善业!By this merit of mine, may all beings without exception rid themselves of all negative acts and always engage in virtue.(三十二)愿不舍觉心,委身菩提行!诸佛恒提携,断尽诸魔业!以我的善行功德,愿一切众生不舍愿求菩提心,全心全意投身于修持菩提行!愿十方三世佛陀永远护念提携,加持他们断除各种魔业和障碍2 !May they never be parted from a bodhichitta aim; may they be devoted to the bodhisattva way of life. May they be taken care of by the Buddhas, and free of the deeds of Māras.(三十三)愿诸有情众,寿命无量长,生活恒安乐,不闻死殁名!以我的善行功德,愿一切众生,个个长命百岁,寿命无尽;愿他们安乐地度日,连「死亡」的名称都不需听闻!May all beings have immeasurable life spans. May they always live happily, without the word “death” being even known.(三十四)愿于诸方所,遍长如意林,充满佛佛子,所宣妙法音!愿所有地方皆变成长满如意树的园林,洋溢着诸佛菩萨宣说的美妙法音。May all directions abound with pleasure gardens of wish-fulfilling trees, replete with Buddhas and children of the Buddhas, and be enchanting with the sounds of Dharma.(三十五)普愿十方地,无砾无荆棘,平坦如舒掌,光滑似琉璃!愿大地地表皆如青金石般清净和光滑;没有石头和荆棘等劣物,大地平坦如同舒张的手掌。May the ground everywhere smooth like the palm of the hand, be free from pebbles and the like, soft and made of lapis lazuli.(三十六)愿诸菩萨众,安住闻法眷,各以妙功德,庄严佛道场!愿大地所有处所,安住着许多菩萨摩诃萨,周围皆有眷属围绕听学佛法,并且运用神妙功德,庄严十方佛教道场!As the circles of disciples, may the great assemblies of Bodhisattvas sit on all side. May they beautify the earth with their personal splendor.(三十七)愿诸有情众,相续恒听闻,鸟树虚空明,所出妙法音!愿一切有情相续不断地听闻从飞鸟、树林、光明,甚至从虚空中所飘送出来的微妙法音! May all beings unceasingly hear the melodious Dharma, from birds, from trees, from the rays of light, and even from the sky.(三十八)愿彼常值佛,以及诸佛子,并以无边云,献供众生师!愿一切众生经常值遇亲见诸佛菩萨;并即时以广大的花香灯果等供养云海,敬献给一切众生的导师释尊。May all beings always encounter the Buddhas and the children of the Buddhas. And make offerings to the spiritual teachers of the world with endless clouds of offerings.(三十九)愿天降时雨,五谷悉丰收!仁王如法行,世事皆兴隆!愿众生个个具足修行的顺缘,天降及时雨,五谷禾稼皆丰收!愿仁王依照佛法的慈悲理念治国,各国世界皆欣欣向荣!May the gods send rain in time, and may there be an abundance of crops. May the populace be prosperous, and may the king be righteous.(四十)愿药具速效,咒语咸灵验!空行罗剎等,悉具慈悲心!愿药物3 都具有特效,消灾祈福的咒语皆能灵验!愿行走于空中的罗剎、魔祟等会伤人的众生,都能具有慈悲心而不伤害别人!May medicines be effect, and the chanting of hidden mantras be successful; may dakini-witches, rāksasas and the other ghouls be filled with compassion.(四十一)愿众无苦痛,无病未造罪!无惧不遭轻,毕竟无不乐!愿无人承受肉体上痛苦,或是心灵上的忧虑或不快乐。不曾犯罪,没有疾病;愿他们远离恐惧,不受轻视。May no sentient being be painful, nor ever be depressed, nor act with sinful, nor be sick, nor be frightened, nor be derided.第四十讲完 注释1 没有闲暇修持佛法的人生,被视为不能改变自己,升进生命质素的人生,称为「八无暇」或「八难」;这些众生分别是生于地狱、饿鬼、傍生、长寿天、边鄙地、具邪见的外道家庭、佛法传播不到的不毛之地及天生聋哑或智障者。2 一般修行人很难断除天子魔的诱惑和中断魔的操控,只有祈请诸佛菩萨和大善知识才可断除魔业。3 《十诵律》说药物有四种,分别是时药、时分药、七日药和尽形寿药。时药例如甘蔗,时分药例如清汁,二者似是充饥食物和饮料;七日药是营养补剂,如酥、油、石蜜;尽形寿药是为治病而服用的药物。此处药物应专指尽形寿药。应用讨论问题一)寂天菩萨将闻思修《入菩萨行》的功德,回向所有众生。当中没有把功德回向天人,这是什么原因?二)寂天菩萨把人类分为两类,前者是一般凡夫,后者是修行佛法的人;两者都有回向,这是什么原因? 三)人类凡夫有什么苦?寂天菩萨如何祈愿他们离苦得乐? 四)寂天菩萨希望这个地球是一个经济富庶、民风纯朴、民智发达,并由仁王依慈悲佛法统治的世界。试述寂天菩萨如何建构这个地球理想国。五)寂天菩萨希望人人学佛法,地球变成极乐世界。试述寂天菩萨如何透过功德回向,在地球建立人间净土。